El blog d'En Joan Quetgles

Un bloc de filosofia i societat. Recomano la lectura del meu llibre titulat La filosofia i la religió sense caretes, editat a la Xarxa com a post.

Wittgenstein and logical positivism

quetgles | 29 Gener, 2016 18:01

       Wittgenstein and logical positivism

This article is the thesis that success analytic philosophy is the announcement of his death. The philosophy would be reduced to the work of the scientific study of language, to make clarifications about language problems. The philosophy at the end would come to the status of science, but would have nothing to say about the world or morality. Is the announcement of death, but of philosophy; the only logical positivism and analytic philosophy. If anything, they are positivists who should shut up. If everything is already said, what is stressed again and again about the "language error" fall on those who deal with issues of moral or metaphysical? Not the case I consider that philosophy should have a privileged status in the search for truth. On the contrary, I maintain that philosophy is not science, and that even m'avindria to rename the thing; philosophy is that instead of saying something like some thought or ideology, for example.

 Ludwig Wittgenstein

Wittgenstein is honest: their publications no debate on moral or metaphysical, or confessed their ideology. It publishes its ideology, but moral decisions (should understand the term "moral" in its widest sense) within family and social situations. If moral decisions, that means arguing on moral or metaphysical subjects. I want to emphasize that our man does not renounce the use of reason to look out of moral or metaphysical doubts that assail (on the other hand, something common among the mortals).

We see that strongly impressed that German engineer Bertrand Russell; he raised questions about the Principia Mathematica like no other - I suppose -. The great English philosopher was facing a young demonstrated a deep understanding of the language of logic and mathematics. It seemed a miracle, an amazing thing. Russell must have thought that this man had an extraordinary intellectual capacity that could solve the problems that he had not found a solution. Test admiration of Russell is not only to give strong support to the publication of the Tractatus; most surprising is that proclaim that the book is a historical event (the philosophers who advises hurry to read the book!).  Ludwig Wittgenstein is the most influential representative of analytical philosophy and logical positivism. Wittgenstein closes the positivist circle: the philosophy is reduced to a logical analysis of language; philosophy is to pretend that men - philosophers - are confused when trying to metaphysics and moral issues because they misuse of language. With the publication of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 1921 announced the final solution of philosophical problems, that philosophy should pretend logical solution ideas.

Wittgenstein says in truth; with their work, analytic philosophy for the summit. The main theses seem unquestionable. His analysis on the functioning of language in Philosophical Investigations should be considered as one of the most notable works in the field of logic, language and scientific language.

Then, if the main Wittgenstein statements are incontrovertible, all devotees should be called analytic philosophy? Not at all. Wittgenstein's victory is not the end of the activity on the intellectual and moral metaphysics (the ideological war has never truce), but the end of analytic philosophy in the sense of finished work, definitive. It is this philosophy that no longer have anything new to say. Apparently it seems that I entered into a contradiction, namely, on the one hand, I set out for the good of Wittgenstein and, secondly, I intend to present as true statements that contradict those of Wittgenstein. We analyzed the paradoxes.

Necessarily we must assume - I think - that in Wittgenstein himself who throughout his life and meditate for reasoning about moral issues and metaphysics, and he who comes to conclusions on these issues; it is he himself who, despite seeing that he could not apply his philosophy proclaimed, made public, anyway decisions derived from a "non-analytical philosophical thought", ie, what would be his "philosophy is not private made public. " Wittgenstein moves continuously harassed by the facts of their environment and the world that lead to critical situations and extreme force to take major decisions that change his life again and again. Wittgenstein's life is a novel of passion and intrigue and continuous turbulence. From the very beginning, the uniqueness of his family also offered more than material for a novel saga: Jews converted to Protestantism in a Catholic Vienna at the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A chain of singularities: father, mother, brothers ... Father, who created the largest steel industry and became one of the richest men in Austria; The father, who was a lover of the arts and sciences and a patron. One is a must read it and think twice when they heard that among the guests invited to meals Wittgenstein appears Sigmund Freud! Another extravagance family: the children were educated at home with private teachers;  Ludwig did not go to school until after serving thirteen years. And a very demanding father. And another extravagance: by reason please maternal grandmother who was Catholic Ludwig was baptized a Catholic, and the Catholic ritual accomplish for years. All the brothers were intellectually gifted, but Ludwig was the prodigy; there was no question or matter dominated in a short time. Intelligence genius and passion for knowledge. And passion for the arts. Like his father passion for the arts, music, above. Want to put your intelligence to serve society in a useful, concrete and positive; therefore enrolled in the faculty of engineering at the University of Berlin. And death hovered about Wittgenstein. In 1902, his brother Hans died, committed suicide; in 1904, his brother Rudolf, also committed suicide; 1918 dies in accident on a flight test his best friend David Pinsent; and his brother Kurt committed suicide in front of the war; 1949, died of cancer his sister Hermine.

 Ludwig Wittgenstein also known for its hardworking moral acts. I think that Wittgenstein In reflecting and reasoning about moral issues affecting their unique moral conduct. And in the life of Ludwig is crossed by change and upheaval. As a movie quickly: From Berlin passes Cambridge; the outbreak of war in 1914, made an anonymous donation of 100,000 crowns to help fund the artists' needs, and presented voluntary Austrian army as a soldier; while it is in the frontline, still working in the Tractatus. In 1919, he donated his inheritance to his brothers; In 1922, it seems that exceeds a tremendous existential crisis and decides schoolmaster; removes title and makes master; School ongoing changes; seems to have problems with the parents of students. In 1926, in mid-course, has another crisis; leave teaching and makes a Franciscan convent gardener; then this year, with an architect friend began to build a house for his sister; 1927, comes into contact with the Vienna Circle; in 1928, he returned to work on issues of philosophy; 29 back to Cambridge.

 Wittgenstein and philosophers of logical positivism fall into the same contradiction: on one hand indicate philosophy can not occupy the moral or metaphysical, but at the same time they are forced to make personal decisions on questions of moral or metaphysical therefore, affect the course of their lives. At the end of the Tractatus says explicitly what he claims the role of philosophy: The correct method of philosophy would properly the say nothing more than what can be said, ie propositions of natural science - something Therefore, it has nothing to do with philosophy - and then when someone would say something metaphysical, demonstrate long as their proposals had not given any meaning to certain signs. If you give good by definition expressed by Wittgenstein, then you must understand that men and philosophers have only a misuse of language, and now continue this malpractice.

If Wittgenstein was limited to say that the propositions of metaphysics and ethics are not possible as a science, then his claim that coincides with the conclusions reached Hume, two hundred years ago. Leaving aside the use of formal logic as a last instrument to clarify the method of science, logical positivism would have nothing to say about the issues that were traditionally treated by philosophers. That is, the philosophy contributes nothing to the truth; is a pure exercise or mystical.

I see an essential point where Wittgenstein differs from logical positivism: In Wittgenstein suggests that life truly begins where it ends positivism. Like a leader of a mystical sect (Well, if anything, the sect would be very elitist and guardian of the secret), with enigmatic language, states that are not the problems of natural science that should solve (Tractatus, 6.4312). Insists to record their proposal mystical and says We feel that even when all possible scientific questions have been answered, not yet touched at all our vital problems. True, then it is precisely any more questions; and this is precisely the response (Tractatus, 652). Do not hide anything his proposal to follow the path of mysticism; Not so says this must be why men who were clarified the meaning of life after long doubts could not say what this regard? (Tractatus, 6521)

I agreed on the critical positivist philosophies and idealistic assertion that metaphysics or ethics are not possible as a science; but my question is whether this claim was already established by Hume empiricist philosophers, 'What a colossal research drawing logical to insist on the same issue?

Hume, who had once shown that metaphysics was not possible, given a step further and put the arguments to show the inconsistency of miracles. Criticism of Hume to the foundations of belief in miracles, contained a criticism really buried in the belief in God and religion. Indeed, several lines philosophical Enlightenment - deism, agnosticism, skepticism, atheism - all coincided to make a criticism of positive religions and fought against the Catholic Church. This is not the case neopositivista; a very discreet, rather manifest a profound conservative character. Wittgenstein also said that should be respectful of religious beliefs but does criticism of religions or the evils perpetrated in the name of God.

Wittgenstein loose some expressions that match their mystical attitude toward life. By their actions, it is as if to say that he is not really of this world, but a mystical, personal, reserved, will never be explained or theorized. We can only glimpse this world for some aspects of their behavior seems to bear the mark of mysticism. In Tractatus are some expressions in this sense mystical and enigmatic. At the end of the book are expressions like this whole modern view of the world is based on the illusion that the so-called laws of nature ... So stop the laws of nature as if they were something untouchable, like old stopped in God and destiny. And both certainly have reason and without. The former are, however, it clearer as to recognize a clear end, while the new system seems as if everything is explained (Tractatus, 6371 and 6372) We must understand, I guess, that the author thinks Science does not solve the riddle of man nor of what is mystical; it does not reject the idea of mystique, but on the contrary it is the mystic top and high. This sense will say that the world should be out of it ... If there is a value that is valuable ... must be outside the world ... Therefore neither can there be for proposals ethics ... ethics can not be expressed. Ethics is transcendental. Ethics and aesthetics are one (Tractatus, 6:41, 6:42, 6421). It seems that at some point is tempted to refer to God or some indefinable something metaphysical; thus, in paragraph 6522 reads: The untold yet exist. Shown is mystic. In my opinion, the most embarrassing paragraph is 6.4312, which states that the temporary immortality of the soul of man is not guaranteed ... ... Does this eternal life may not be equally enigmatic than the current ? The solution to the riddle of life in space and time lies outside space and time. It seems clear that Wittgenstein was very interested in issues of metaphysical and religious beliefs. It is a pity that did not leave his studies and writings about his thoughts on this subject (For years, thirties, always carried with him the Gospel of Tolstoy book is the secular path of holiness). I believe in 6432, we understand that assumes the existence of God when he says what he is totally indifferent higher as the world. God is revealed in the world. Surely he must have studied Wittgenstein passionately Jewish religion - they were a family of Jewish converts - and Christianity, as well as enlightened discourse on religion. And also must have known that I am not a Christian book of his friend and protector Bertrand Russell. Surely he knew the work of Freud. Surely you knew Semitism - so powerful in the Germanic world - and that he must have suffered ever. I suppose that talking about these issues with their family and friends. Anyway, it left nothing written about these issues (Well, after I learned of the existence of the secret diary).

Despite the silence on her personal world, about what he considered mystical, which could not hide was his conduct, his work as a social person, their passions and feelings. And the first thing that shows the eccentric life of our character is the demon that keeps pace throughout his life. Unlike other characters hectic life as Napoleon might be in or Francesc Macia Wittgenstein is unique in the continuous break of life and the changing pace of vital objective. I mean, you can see that his dedication to the vital projects dearest always lasts ridiculously short. One day wants to be an engineer, another musician, philosopher then, after leaving philosophy, and makes an architect then makes a teacher and leave it for a gardener, occasionally, often leave their jobs and withdraws from the world in Ireland, Norway, with a friend; I do not know if they were platonic love or the other, but women are absent from their lives. It seems as if he could withstand more than six months occupied a specific activity. Neither stopped at a rest; continued change of place; and travel numerous trips. Live life to lurch. His life was being a continuous lurch. I do not know if this had liked, because at the time of death, enigmatically, said tell say that my life has been wonderful.

Lately, it has become public domain and sordid secret life of Wittgenstein, with the publication of his secret diary. I was tormented by the lack of their sexual impulses. Now we know his naïve efforts to prevent masturbation. Frightened by his homosexuality, made vows of chastity, but fell into fits of uncontrollable promiscuity and extravagant. I spent a stove full of dirt and slag, left written as a confession of his Erotomania.

The proposal of logical positivism was in the interests of ideological conservatism. While the class struggle is still present, and men are given an ideological war without truce them, the positivists, propose neutrality. And the more reactionary line - represented by Auguste Comte - proposes to leave in the hands of social scientists all social conflicts and solving labor question.

The latest proposal of Wittgenstein In no sense is absurd. It makes no sense to propose a way - did not really know what or how - a mystical indefinitely. So, proposes silence and nothingness as the ultimate goal of humans.

Denial of positivist thesis should be done through a practice of ideological combat of full participation in the ideological war against the reactionary forces against the exploitation of workers, against injustice, against all kinds of social oppression, the liberation of oppressed peoples. So is whether the positivists say that this activity is not to philosophy. Certainly not make his philosophy, which involves the study of the language applications. From the beginning I say that philosophy is not a science and morality and metaphysics can not be science, but it is not a moral emotivisme pure emotion, but the men at all times make arguments in support of their moral sentiments. What moral which says, in practice, encompasses most of human activities in the social order.

The aim of transferring the moral issues curricula of alleged social scientists is actually a reactionary proposal. It is an attempt to present science as a system based on slavery. These scientists are striving to create havens positivist social way of The Republic of Plato but ultramodern scientific version.

Keep in mind the fundamental thesis: Men - and philosophers and scientists - think and have ideas because of emotions. Descartes is not only a forger but a false figure. At time of writing discourse method, Descartes wanted to believe in an investigation that began from a sentimental neutrality of absolute objectivity in the manner of geometricians. But while; he moved to feelings not declared; hiding their intentions. But we know that a man without passions can not leave anything, and eunuchs feel no interest in geometry, or any other science.

Comentaris

Afegeix un comentari
 
Accessible and Valid XHTML 1.0 Strict and CSS
Powered by LifeType - Design by BalearWeb